Lense operation and control



Terms and concepts

  • Zoom lens: has a range of lenses and can zoom in and out
  • Prime lens: has only one focal length and cant zoom out, tend to be more portable, tend to produce sharper images then zoom lenses, are cheaper than a zoom lens, not as convenient as zoom
  • Wide lens:exaggerate distance, are 24-35 millimeters
  • Normal lens:
  • Telephoto lens:
  • Focal length:  is marked on lens
  • Aperture: opening on the back on the lens
  • Fixed Aperture: has complex insides that allows you to maintain a fixed aperture
  • Fast/Slow Lenses:slow lenses can only open to 3.5
  • Field of View (FoV): how much stuff you can see in the frame
  • Perspective:
  • Lens Distortion:wide angel lenses tend to produce lens distortion, things towards the edge of the field of view can get distorted
  • Lens Compression: longer focal lengths cause lens compression, is more flattering for close ups,
  • Filters: 
  • Macro: if your lens is capable of macro photograph it will say macro on the lens
  • Lens Mounts: interchangeable cameras have different lens mounts, make sure you have a camera
  • Cinema Lenses: are designed specifically for film making, has bigger zoom lenses
  • Lens Breathing: when you use a photography lens you can get some lens breathing when the focus changes ever so slightly, even worse if you use non cinema lenses
  • Cleaning Lenses: start with a blower to blow things off, don’t ever put cleaning solution on the lens
  • Lens Protection:  screw a uv filter on the lens, use lens hood acts as a bumper for your lens

camera tutorial sound designer production journal


In this project we were tasked with learning all or at least most of the parts in a camera to complete a film. The film that we were tasked with making was a tutorial about how to use the camera and in the video we had to show that we know by covering a good amount of the buttons and settings in the camera.

terms and concepts

  • Ambient Light – the natural light in a scene
  • Aperture Priority – a camera setting that allows the user to control the aperture, leaving the shutter speed to be automatically determined
  • Bokeh – the appearance or “feel” of out-of-focus areas
  • Bulb “B” Setting – a camera setting where the shutter will remain open as long as the release button is depressed
  • Butterfly Lighting – lighting where the main light is placed high, in front of the face, aimed at the center of the nose
  • Complimentary Color – pair of primary/secondary colors opposed to each other on the color wheel
  • Depth of Field – range of distance in a scene which appears focused
  • DSLR – acronym for “digital single lens reflex,” a type of camera
  • EXIF – acronym for “exchangeable image file format,” which is data attached to each image that tells the type of camera, date/time, image format, and camera settings when the picture was taken
  • F-Stop – number representing the aperture of the camera
  • FPS – acronym for “frames per second,” the number of pictures a camera is able to take in one second
  • Golden Hour – time an hour or less before the sun goes down, when the light is more complimentary to skin tones
  • Graininess – when clumps of individual grains are large and irregularly spaced out in the negative or digital image, making the picture appear “grainy”
  • Gray Card – card used to help color correct/balance a camera before taking an image
  • High Key – image mainly made up of evenly lit light tones
  • Hyperfocal Point/Distance – the nearest point to the camera considered acceptably sharp when the lens is focused on infinity
  • ISO – film or digital chip speed/sensitivity designated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • JPEG (JPG) – acronym for “joint photographic experts group,” an image file format standard where the size of the file is reduced by compressing it
  • Kelvin – a temperature scale, here used to measure color temperature of the visible light spectrum
  • Lens Hood – accessory that attaches as a collar to the front of a lens to prevent stray light from striking the surface of the lens, causing flare
  • Lossless – describes file formats which do not result in a loss of data – example: raw file format
  • Lossy – form of image compression when saving image that discards data from it – example: .jpg
  • Low Key – image that is mostly dark, higher contrasted light between the dark and the light
  • Macro Lens – type of lens that can focus extremely closely
  • Megabyte (MB, Mb, Mbyte) – a million bytes
  • Megapixel – a million pixels, used to describe the number of pixels that a digital device’s image sensor has
  • Model Release – contract where a model consents to the use of his/her images by the photographer/a third party
  • Monochrome – image of a single color in differing shades
  • (Electronic) Noise – grainy look in a digital image, usually occurring in shadowy/low-light areas
  • Normal Lens – lens with a focal length approximately equal to the diagonal of the film format or of a digital camera’s image sensor
  • Painting with Light – when a photographer incrementally lights an otherwise darkened scene using a handheld flashlight or other small light source while the shutter remains open during a time exposure
  • Panning – technique involving taking a picture while moving the camera at a relatively slow shutter speed
  • PSD – image type in Adobe PhotoShop for a “work-in-progress,” must be converted to another file type before use
  • Raw Image – digital image format that contains the most info possible from a camera sensor (uncompressed)
  • Reciprocal Rule – rule that states your shutter speed should not be slower than the reciprocal of your effective focal length to avoid blur
  • Reflector – any device used to reflect light on a subject
  • Rembrandt Lighting – portrait lighting technique which casts a triangle shaped shadow on the less illuminated side of the face
  • Resampling – when an image editing program is used to change the image size
  • RGB – acronym for “red, green, blue,” the primary colors of light
  • Rule of Thirds – composition rule that divides the screen into thirds horizontally and vertically to determine placement of important objects in a shot
  • Through-the-Lens (TTL) – refers to both exposure metering of the light passing through the lens/viewing a scene through the same lens that allows light to reach the sensor or the film
  • UV Filter – a clear, neutral filter that absorbs ultraviolet radiation, with no effect on visible colors
  • Vignetting – a fall-off in brightness at the edges of an image, slide, or print
  • White Balance – when the camera adjusts the colors in an image to make the image look more natural based on the objects/areas that are pure white
  • Zoom Lens – a lens in which focal length is variable


Day 1: Screenwriting/planning

Day 2: Screen writing/ planning

Day 3: Filming

Day 4: Finish Filming/begin editing

Day 5: Finish editing



In this part of the production process my job was very minor but still necessary. My main job was to go to the possible locations that we might use for the final video. We ultimately settled on one location which was the track field and so I was sent to test audio in that location. the largest thing that I learned in this project was how to use the audio deck as well as the boom mic. the process of testing the audio in the specific location was mostly smooth sailing but on the test day it was very windy and caused a lot of loud ambient noise in the recording there was not much we could do but the next day we discovered that our voices downed out the ambient noise.

test recordings




This phase of production was the phase were I had the largest involvement. This is because in this phase is when we started shooting the video and I was needed to get the audio through the boom mic.

collating sound for editing


post production


In the post production project my job was to edit down the audio clips that were recorded by the boom mic and audio deck but I was absent the day I was suppose to do that so that never happened but the clips were suppose to replace the audio in the original film to enhance the audio and to make it easier to hear and understand.


what I learned and problems I solved

The larges thing that I learned during this process was the process for sound in a film. No problems happened except some ambient noise but that was drowned out by the actors voice when we finally started recording